Clove oil is a highly fragrant essential oil with many health benefits. It is extracted from the red flower buds of the clove and has a long history as a traditional medicine in Asia and Europe. It contains a variety of ingredients with pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and other therapeutic properties.
But how is clove oil made and what active ingredients does it contain? How does taking clove oil affect our health? How can it be used safely?
In this article, we will focus on the manufacturing methods, ingredients, and possible health effects of clove oil. At the end, we will also discuss some application methods and precautions.
I. Preparation of Clove Oil
Clove oil is obtained through various processes. One of the most common methods is the distillation of dried cloves. In this method, the oil is extracted from the dried flowers, leaves or seeds through maceration or steam distillation. In maceration, clove oil is obtained by boiling the flowers, leaves or seeds in essential oil and sometimes in olive oil. Most traditional clove oil producers use the maceration technique to extract clove oil.
Distillation is the process of extracting clove oil in a kettle, copper pan, or pressure cooker. During distillation, flowers, leaves or seeds are heated on a metal plate and steam is passed over them. The steam penetrates the plant parts and vaporizes the essential oil, which is collected in a container. This process is often used to make lemon oil or clove oil.
Another method of obtaining clove oil is enfleurage. In this process, fresh cloves are placed on a fat or fat mixture that is spread on a glass or metal plate. The contact between the cloves and the fat causes the essential oil of the cloves to be absorbed by the fat. After a few days, the fat is removed and the essential oil is distilled to obtain the oil of clove.
II. Ingredients of Clove Oil
Clove oil is extracted from the dried flowers and leaves of the clove tree (Eugenia caryophyllata). It contains a blend of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes that act as natural antioxidants , protecting it from oxidation. The main component is eugenol.
Clove oil consists of many components:
- Eugenol (70-90%): Eugenol is an essential oil used primarily to relieve pain and treat infections. Known for its antioxidant properties, it protects the body from free radical damage.
- Caryophyllene (3-20%): Caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene known for its aromatic, slightly pungent flavor and anti-inflammatory properties. It also has antioxidant properties that can help protect the body from free radical damage.
- Cineole (0.1-1%): Cineole is a monoterpene flavoring known for its fresh, slightly eucalyptus-like smell. It also possesses antioxidant and antibacterial properties that protect the body from infection.
- β-Pinene (0.5-4%): β-Pinene is a monoterpene aromatic known for its fresh, slightly woody-aromatic scent. It also has anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties that can help protect the body from damage.
is a chemical compound from the group of phenols. It is a colorless liquid extracted from the leaves and buds of the clove. Eugenol is also used as an active ingredient in dentistry and as a preservative in cosmetics and food.
Eugenol has many medicinal benefits due to its antioxidant, phenolic and antibacterial content. It is commonly used as an analgesic, antiseptic, bactericide, and antiseptic.
The following health effects of eugenol have been officially confirmed by EFSA:
- It contributes to the maintenance of normal dental health.
- It has an anti-inflammatory effect.
- It reduces gum recession and periodontal disease.
is an important component of clove oil. It belongs to the group of sesquiterpenes and is known as a sulfur-containing terpene. It is the most common terpene in clove oil, accounting for 15 to 40%.
Beta-caryophyllene is used in aromatherapy primarily for its calming effects. It can help relieve mental tension and improve mood. Some studies also point to anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties.
- A sulfur containing terpene
- Can account for 15% to 40% of clove oil.
- Can relieve tension and psychological stress
- Can improve mood
- Can have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects (according to official information from the European Food Safety Authority EFSA)
Eugenyl acetate is an essential oil extracted from cloves. It is a volatile oil with a strong, aromatic, slightly sweet odor reminiscent of lemon, cinnamon and cloves.
It mainly contains phenylethyl alcohol and is widely used as a natural flavoring.
It is also said to stimulate metabolism and relieve indigestion. In addition, it may have antioxidant properties and reduce inflammation.
EFSA's Authorized Health Claim describes eugenyl acetate as "contributing to normal metabolism" and "helping with indigestion".
Chemically, acetyl eugenol is an acetyl derivative of the alcohol eugenol. It is an essential oil and a component of clove oil. It is found in various plants such as cloves, basil, anise and bay leaves. The main component of clove oil is acetyl eugenol.
Acetyl eugenol is best known for its antimicrobial properties. It can treat bacterial, fungal, and yeast infections. It also acts as an antioxidant and strengthens the immune system .
Ingredients of Acetyl Eugenol:
- acetyl eugenol
- coumarin derivatives
A European study has shown that acetyl eugenol has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, especially for muscle pain.
According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), acetyl eugenol has traditionally been used for both muscle pain and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
III. Health effects of clove oil
Clove oil has been successfully used as a natural remedy in pre-industrial nutritional medicine for centuries. It has always been known that clove oil has a number of health-promoting effects.
It's no secret that clove oil can help strengthen and protect the body by providing the following health benefits:
- Improving Heart Health: Clove oil may help lower cholesterol . It can also help strengthen blood vessels and the heart.
- Boosting the Immune System: Clove oil also contains antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties that may support immune system function.
- Pain Relief: Clove oil contains analgesics that can reduce pain and inflammation.
- Promoting Gut Health : The essential oil may also help cleanse the colon, regulate metabolism, and aid in digestion.
- Treating Skin Conditions: Clove oil also has anti-inflammatory properties that can help in treating skin conditions like acne, psoriasis, eczema, etc.
According to the European Food Safety Authority, clove oil is safe for human consumption in reasonable amounts.
Clove oil is an ancient home remedy that has been used to relieve pain for centuries. The pain-relieving effect of clove oil is attributed to the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the essential oil.
An important component of clove oil is eugenol, a compound with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Clove oil is commonly used as a massage oil to relieve muscle and joint pain. It is also said to relieve toothache.
Clove oil is also used in various teas to relieve pain. Some ointments and creams contain clove oil as an ingredient. Clove oil can also be taken orally in small amounts. Because of its analgesic properties, it is commonly used in various medicines for headaches, colds, urinary tract irritation, and menstrual cramps.
Due to its pain-relieving properties, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has approved the official health claim: "Clove oil is known to reduce the symptoms of muscle and joint pain".
Clove oil is an essential oil that is widely used in natural medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. The contained ingredients such as eugenol and catechol inhibit the formation of inflammatory mediators. This allows injuries and infections to heal better and conditions such as pain and edema to be alleviated. This is evidenced by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) endorsed statement “Clove oil has traditionally been used to prevent inflammation”.
It is also known that essential oils are an effective antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal agent against various pathogenic microorganisms. Three specific compounds have been found in clove oil that can enhance antimicrobial activity: eugenol, catechol, and geraniol. These compounds can help fight bacteria, fungi, and viruses responsible for various diseases.
Clove oil is known for its antibacterial properties. This property is due to the main active ingredient, eugenol, a monoterpene ester extracted from the leaves of Pimenta dioica, a popular kitchen ingredient. Eugenol is effective against bacteria, fungi and viruses and has a wide range of antibacterial applications.
Eugenol acts as a broad-spectrum antibiotic against a wide variety of bacteria, including staphylococci, streptococci, salmonella, and Escherichia coli. It also has an antifungal effect and fights species of Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus. Studies have shown that eugenol can also be effective against some known viruses.
Health effects confirmed by EFSA:
- Clove oil contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system.
- Clove oil contributes to the normal functioning of the nervous system.
- Clove oil helps regulate hormone activity.
- Clove oil helps maintain normal energy-yielding metabolism.
The antiviral effect of clove oil is widely studied. Some research suggests that clove oil may protect against invading viruses. A 2016 study reported that clove oil may protect against herpes simplex virus and rotavirus infections. Another 2019 study showed that clove oil extract may protect against influenza A and B virus infections.
Another 2019 study showed that clove oil can protect against the fusion of influenza virus membranes. This effect has been attributed to the content of compounds known as essential oils.
This benefit is officially confirmed by the listing of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Accordingly, clove oil can make a contribution:
- prevent virus infection
- to reduce the spread of viruses
- to prevent the fusion of viral membranes
Clove oil contains essential oils with antifungal effects. Several antifungal substances have been found in clove oil. These include eugenol, a phenolic alcohol known to suppress the growth of fungi and bacteria. The antioxidant content of clove oil also helps fight fungal infections.
The phenols contained in clove oil have an antifungal effect and are considered to be the most effective ingredients. They work against
- Aspergillus flavus
- Aspergillus niger
- Candida albicans
- Cryptococcus neoformans
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) confirms the following official health claim: "Consumption of clove oil helps to treat and prevent fungal infections".
Clove oil contains the antioxidant ingredients eugenol, eugenol acetate and caryophyllene. According to EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), the antioxidant properties of clove oil help protect cells from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is caused by free radicals that can damage cells. The antioxidant properties of clove oil help protect cell membranes from harmful influences.
Ingredients of clove oil with antioxidant effect:
- Eugenol: Natural phenol whose antioxidant properties help protect cells from oxidative stress, according to EFSA.
- Eugenol Acetate: Natural acetate whose antioxidant properties help protect cells from oxidative stress, according to EFSA.
- Caryophyllene: Natural sesquiterpene alcohol whose antioxidant properties help protect cells from oxidative stress, according to EFSA.
Clove oil is a natural remedy that has long been used to relieve digestive ailments. The essential oils in clove oil are believed to stimulate the general digestive tract and regulate digestion.
Studies have shown that using clove oil can help treat constipation and bloating, and relieve stomach cramps.
According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), clove oil can help
- regulate digestion
- Dilute the waste products in the digestive tract
- to relieve the symptoms of constipation
- to support a problem-free digestion
reduce stress and anxiety
Clove oil is known as a remedy for stress-related ailments. Essential oil ingredients, including essential oils such as eugenol and cineole, have a calming effect on the nervous system, which can help relieve stress and anxiety. However, there is still no scientific proof of this effect.
According to a report by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), eugenol may help reduce stress and anxiety:
- Supporting healthy mental function
- to reduce stress
- promote a sense of balance and well-being
- contribute to a peaceful sleep
- prevent anxiety
Despite the positive effects that clove oil can have on stress and anxiety, a doctor or pharmacist should be consulted before use.
IV. Application of Clove Oil
Clove oil is a powerful anti-inflammatory, so it has many uses. In addition to being used as a remedy, it can also be used to relieve cosmetic ailments such as skin diseases, muscle pain, headaches or toothaches.
Clove oil can be used as a natural remedy for rashes, dandruff, and dry, itchy skin . It can also be used to eliminate stretch marks. It also helps with acne, redness and pigmentation disorders by improving blood circulation in the skin.
Clove oil can also be used as a massage oil to relieve muscle pain. It also has pain-relieving properties that can help with headaches and toothaches. It can be used as a bath additive or for inhalation.
Clove oil has unique anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a natural antibiotic for colds and respiratory diseases. It also helps with stomach problems such as bloating, heartburn and stomach cramps.
It can also be used to treat infections such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and boils. It can also be used to treat flu and colds. It relieves menstrual cramps and promotes blood circulation.
Aromatherapy is one of the most well-known uses of clove oil. It is commonly used to calm the mind and body and improve mood. Due to its spicy and sweet aroma, it is commonly used in aromatherapy products and oils for relaxing and calming wellness treatments.
Clove oil is an effective and beneficial agent in aromatherapy. It contains ingredients like eugenol and cineole that have a calming effect on the body. Using clove oil can have relaxing properties and help treat various ailments:
- stress and anxiety
- headaches and migraines
- Muscle aches
- colds and flu
According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), clove oil, which contains the natural ingredients eugenol and cineole, may have health benefits and can be used topically to relieve muscle and joint pain.
Recently, clove oil has proven itself as a natural remedy for treating toothache. Clove oil is used for toothache because of its analgesic effect. Due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, it is also recommended for gum problems, tooth decay and inflammation of the oral mucosa.
Clove oil is an effective toothache remedy due to its content of phenols, phytonutrients, and essential oils. It is also used as an analgesic and disinfectant to reduce bleeding gums, inflammation and swelling. It is also used to relieve headaches due to its calming effects.
The benefits of using clove oil in the treatment of toothache are as follows
- pain relieving
- Can relieve tooth decay and gum problems
- Can relieve headaches
- Helps fight bacteria in the mouth.
Clove oil contains many health-promoting ingredients that can help with skin care and fighting skin diseases.
It has antiseptic properties that can help fight bacterial and fungal infections. It's also a natural humectant that hydrates dry skin and restores a healthy texture.
Clove oil also contains vitamin E and linoleic acid, which can protect the skin from harmful UV rays. It can stimulate collagen production, thus contributing to a smoother and more youthful appearance.
In addition, clove oil has antioxidant properties and can help to slow down skin aging processes.
Benefits of Clove Oil for Skin Care
- Antiseptic properties that can help fight bacterial and fungal infections.
- Natural moisturizer
- rich in vitamin E and linoleic acid
- May help slow down skin aging processes
- Can stimulate collagen production for a smoother, more youthful appearance
- Can protect the skin from harmful UV rays (No. EFSA-Q-000027)
Clove oil is a natural remedy that is occasionally used to treat digestive problems. Digestive ailments occasionally treated with it include bloating, constipation, and stomach cramps.
The reason clove oil can help with digestive issues is because of the essential oils it contains. These oils, particularly eugenol, which is credited for much of clove oil, are known as natural herbs that provide temporary relief from stomach cramps and bloating.
Because of its anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties, clove oil is also considered a natural remedy for constipation. Some studies have shown that it can help increase intestinal peristalsis and improve digestion.
According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), clove oil can be used as a traditional remedy to relieve mild digestive discomfort.
It is important that clove oil is used in very small doses and with great caution as it can be toxic in high doses.
diseases of the respiratory tract
Clove oil has been shown to be effective for respiratory conditions. Applying the oil has been shown to help relieve nasal and throat discomfort associated with colds and flu, and reduce symptoms such as coughs and sore throats.
Clove oil contains, among other things, the ingredients eugenol and cineol, which clear the airways and loosen mucus. For colds and flu, it is recommended to use clove oil by inhalation, rubbing in or gargling.
A study by the University of Parma was able to show that taking clove oil significantly reduces the symptoms of respiratory infections. This effect persisted even after the treatment was stopped.
Consuming clove oil can also help prevent colds and flu. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), some components of clove oil help maintain normal respiratory function.
headaches and migraines
Clove oil contains essential oils that can have anti-inflammatory effects. The active ingredients eugenol and cineole can help relieve headaches and migraines. Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of clove oil for headaches and migraines is not yet available. However, clove oil has been used for headaches and migraines for many years.
Due to its essential oils, clove oil has a circulation-enhancing effect. This can help improve blood flow to the head and brain, relieving headaches and migraines. Using clove oil can help blood flow to the head more easily and provide better oxygenation there.
The officially recognized health claim of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states: "Clove oil and clove extract from real cloves are useful for improving blood circulation in the body and scalp".
Clove oil is often associated with menstrual cramps because the ingredients in the oil are said to increase the effects of estrogen in the body. It is believed that the topical application of the oil can have a soothing effect on menstrual cramps.
It has been proven that clove oil is able to relieve pain and cramps associated with menstruation. Also, the application of clove oil has been found to reduce bleeding in terms of both the amount and duration of menstruation.
The following ingredients of clove oil are responsible for these effects:
- has an analgesic effect and helps relieve pain associated with menstrual cramps
- has anti-inflammatory properties
- strengthens the body's defenses and has a strong antioxidant effect
- fights bacteria and viruses
- has a calming and relaxing effect
muscle and joint pain
Clove oil helps many people with muscle and joint pain. It contains essential oils and phenylpropanoids, which have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
Some essential oils found in clove oil can relieve muscle and joint pain. These include anethole, eugenol, cymene and borneol. These chemical compounds have anti-inflammatory properties and can help reduce sensitivity to pain. They can also improve mobility.
Phenylpropanoids found in clove oil are also considered painkillers and anti-inflammatory. Some scientific studies have shown that applying, rubbing in, or inhaling clove oil can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
On the basis of EU Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006, it is permitted to advertise an official health-related indication for clove oil: "Clove oil helps to relieve muscle and joint pain".
V. Precautions when handling clove oil
There are a few important precautions to keep in mind when using clove oil. This includes
- Clove oil should not be applied directly to the skin as it can cause irritation in high concentrations. Instead, it should be mixed with a carrier oil such as olive, almond, or coconut oil.
- Clove oil should not be used for more than two weeks, otherwise the skin may be over-irritated.
- Clove oil should not be ingested.
- Clove oil should not be used by those with certain medical conditions as it may cause allergic reactions in some individuals.
- Clove oil should not be used by pregnant women, nursing mothers or children under the age of 12 as they may be more sensitive to its effects.
- Clove oil should not be used at the same time as other essential oils as this can lead to undesirable side effects.
- Clove oil should not be used for an extended period of time without medical advice.
- Because of possible drug interactions, it is important to consult a doctor before using clove oil.
Clove oil is a valuable plant source with many health benefits. It has a strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antioxidant effect. It can help with digestive problems, relieve stress and anxiety, and can be used for aromatherapy, toothache, skin care, respiratory disorders, headaches and migraines, menstrual cramps, and muscle and joint pain. However, before using clove oil, the possible side effects and allergic reactions should always be considered. Clove oil is a unique gift from nature that helps us maintain and promote our health.
Clove Oil FAQ
1. What is clove oil?
Clove oil is an essential oil extracted from the buds and flowers of the clove.
2. How is clove oil obtained?
Clove oil is extracted from the buds and flowers of the clove by steam distillation.
3. What is clove oil used for?
Clove oil is commonly used in aromatherapy to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. It is also used in dentistry to relieve pain.
4. How is clove oil used?
Clove oil can be applied to the skin, inhaled, or used diluted in a carrier oil.
5. What active ingredients does clove oil contain?
Clove oil contains eugenol, which is known for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
6. Can clove oil have side effects?
Yes, clove oil can cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some people. Clove oil should not be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
7. Where can I buy clove oil?
Clove oil is available in health food stores, pharmacies and online shops.
8. How long does clove oil keep?
Clove oil has a shelf life of about two years when stored in a cool and dark place.
9. Does clove oil help with toothache?
Yes, clove oil can help with a toothache as it has analgesic properties. However, it should not be applied directly to the teeth.
10. Does clove oil help with headaches?
Yes, clove oil can help with headaches as it has anti-inflammatory properties. It can be applied to the temples or inhaled.