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I. Introduction

Potassium is a very important mineral for the human body. It is necessary for blood pressure control, kidney function, acid-base balance, muscle and heart function, and communication between cells. But do you know how much potassium your body needs, why it's so important to your health, and where to get it naturally? In this article you will learn everything you need to know about potassium: symptoms and causes of potassium deficiency, potassium-rich foods, potassium and health, and risks and side effects of potassium supplements. This allows you to plan a balanced diet to meet your potassium needs.

Definition of Potassium

Potassium is an essential mineral found in the body and is involved in numerous biological functions. It is an essential element that must be obtained from food. Potassium is the main component of cells and cell fluid, where it is found in a ratio of 145 parts potassium to 100 parts sodium. It plays an important role in the regulation of water balance, blood pressure regulation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission and protein synthesis.

Potassium is classified as a vitamin K, mineral and trace element because it is only required in small amounts. It is often referred to as an "electrolyte mineral" because its ions conduct electrical impulses. It is one of the most commonly absorbed minerals as it is found in many of the foods we eat every day.

Why is potassium important for our body?

Potassium is an important mineral required for a number of physiological functions. For example, potassium is important for regulating blood pressure, maintaining fluid balance, and maintaining normal muscle and nerve function. All of these functions are vital to the health and well-being of the body.

Additionally, when combined with other nutrients, potassium may lower the risk of heart disease. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), a daily intake of at least 3,510 mg of potassium can help lower blood pressure.

Potassium also has an antioxidant effect, meaning it can protect the body from free radicals. Free radicals can damage cells, which can negatively impact health. Potassium may also help prevent vascular disease and inflammation.

To get the above benefits, adults should consume at least 3,510 mg of potassium per day. Potassium can also be taken in the form of dietary supplements.

How much potassium does the body need?

The body needs a certain amount of potassium every day to stay healthy. The recommended amount is 3.5 g per day. It's important to get at least this amount of potassium because potassium performs a number of valuable functions in our body and can affect our well-being.

Potassium can help

  1. to regulate blood pressure
  2. support muscle and nerve function
  3. reduce inflammation
  4. Improvement in mood and energy

Potassium is an essential mineral. This means that our body cannot make it on its own, so we have to get it from food. A lack of potassium in the body is a serious condition called hypokalemia. A potassium deficiency can be dangerous, leading to dizziness, poor muscle control, kidney problems, abnormal heart rhythms and even cardiac arrest.

Potassium should be ingested in sufficient quantities with food. A balanced diet of fresh, unprocessed vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds contains many sources of potassium. Potassium is also found in some grain products, meat and fish. The recommended daily allowance of potassium can also be achieved through dietary supplements such as potassium chloride or potassium citrate.

Symptoms and causes of potassium deficiency

Long-term potassium deficiency can have serious consequences. The first signs of potassium deficiency are tiredness, muscle weakness, muscle twitching, low blood pressure and reduced appetite. A deficiency can also impair thinking and kidney function.

Potassium deficiency can be caused by insufficient potassium intake with food or increased potassium loss through excessive sweating or vomiting. Potassium deficiency can be exacerbated in people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and anorexia.

II. Potassium deficiency

In most cases, potassium deficiency is the result of an unhealthy diet that contains too few potassium suppliers. Potassium deficiency can lead to serious health problems as potassium is an essential mineral responsible for muscle movement, blood pressure, kidney function and the body's water balance.

Possible symptoms of a potassium deficiency are

  • weakness
  • fatigue
  • Muscle aches
  • cramps
  • constipation
  • dizziness
  • cardiac arrhythmias

To prevent deficiency symptoms, adults should consume between 3.5 and 5 grams of potassium every day. A balanced diet with lots of fresh vegetables and fruit is a good way to get enough potassium.

Potassium-rich foods include

  • bananas
  • potatoes
  • broccoli
  • avocado
  • potatoes
  • spinach
  • Dried apricots
  • lenses
  • raisins
  • linseed
  • beans
  • almonds
  • Sesame seeds

Since the body cannot produce potassium itself, it must be obtained from food. If you're looking to increase your potassium intake, it's best to consult a doctor or nutritionist. A professional nutritionist can help you create an eating plan that will help you consume the necessary amount of potassium.

Risk groups for potassium deficiency

Potassium deficiency is a serious problem, especially for certain groups of people. Some groups are at increased risk of potassium deficiency. This includes

  • People with a chronic medical condition that leads to restricted nutrient absorption, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  • People taking medications that affect potassium levels, such as diuretics
  • People with low energy consumption, especially the elderly
  • People who do not get enough potassium from their diet, e.g. B. Infants or people on a strict diet.

The beginning of a potassium deficiency is sometimes difficult to recognize. However, there are some symptoms that may indicate a potassium deficiency, such as:

  • tiredness and drowsiness
  • muscle weakness or cramps
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Increased sensitivity to cold

If any of these symptoms persist over a long period of time, a doctor should be consulted to determine blood potassium levels. Adequate potassium intake can help stay healthy and reduce the risk of potassium deficiency. On the other hand, too much potassium intake can lead to an increase in potassium levels in the blood, which in turn can be dangerous. It is therefore important to regularly monitor and adjust your potassium intake.

treatment of potassium deficiency

Potassium is an essential mineral and an important part of the human body. A potassium deficiency can lead to a range of symptoms including fatigue, muscle cramps, muscle weakness, high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms and constipation. Timely diagnosis is important to treat potassium deficiency.

Treatment is based on taking potassium in the form of supplements or dietary changes to bring blood potassium levels back to normal. In some cases, taking potassium powder or potassium chloride is recommended to compensate for potassium deficiency through oral ingestion. In severe cases, intravenous administration of potassium chloride may be necessary as a short-term treatment.

It is important to note that any potassium supplement, supplement, or medication should only be taken under the advice of a healthcare professional, as improper dosage can lead to a dangerous overdose.

In addition to taking potassium in the form of supplements or medication, dietary changes can raise potassium levels to healthy levels. Eating high-fiber foods like potatoes, bananas, lentils, and beans can help increase blood potassium levels.

III. Foods rich in potassium

Consuming a variety of foods containing potassium is important for a balanced and healthy diet. Potassium is an essential nutrient and is found in many foods. Potassium-rich foods include

  • Dried fruits: apricots, bananas, dried apricots, dried plums, dried figs, raisins, dried dates, dried apples
  • Vegetables: potatoes, peas, beans, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, spinach, sweet potatoes
  • Fruits: bananas, oranges, apricots, peaches, nectarines, avocados
  • Nuts: almonds, walnuts, cashews
  • Seeds: chia, pumpkin seeds, sesame

Potassium is a mineral that, according to EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), helps normalize blood pressure and physical and mental performance. In particular, adequate potassium intake helps reduce the risk of heart disease.

List of foods rich in potassium

Potassium is one of the most important minerals for the body. Foods rich in potassium help the body maintain normal blood pressure and normal muscle function. Potassium intake can be easily increased through a healthy diet, and there are many tasty foods high in potassium.


Tomato, cauliflower, potato, pea, spinach, sweet potato, avocado, broccoli, pepper, squash


Banana, avocado, peaches, melon, berries, mango, apricots, oranges, apples, kiwi

dried fruit

Dates, raisins, apricots, figs, plums

Dairy products

Kefir, yogurt, milk


Salmon, sardines, mackerel, herring


Lamb, Beef, Chicken

seeds and oils

Sesame, flaxseed, cashew nuts, almonds, olive oil


Quinoa , amaranth, corn, oats, barley, millet

There are many other foods that contain potassium and it is important to eat a healthy, balanced diet to provide your body with the nutrients it needs.

How can the potassium content of food be increased?

Potassium is an important mineral that we need to get from food. To increase potassium levels in the body, one can consume a number of foods that are rich in potassium. To ensure adequate potassium intake, you should regularly eat the following foods:

  • Bananas: Bananas are among the most potassium-rich foods. They contain about 358 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Spinach: Spinach is an excellent source of potassium. Spinach contains about 558 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Potatoes: Potatoes contain about 425 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Beans: Beans are an excellent source of potassium. They contain about 295 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Apricots: Apricots are high in potassium, containing approximately 257 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Salmon: Salmon is a very good supplier of potassium and contains about 216 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Tomatoes: Tomatoes are a good source of potassium, containing approximately 227mg of potassium per 100g.
  • Oranges: Oranges are also a very good source of potassium and contain about 165 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Yoghurt: Another high-potassium food, yogurt contains about 127 mg of potassium per 100 g.
  • Avocados: Avocados contain about 370 mg of potassium per 100 g.

Another way to increase potassium is to maintain a 2:1 calcium to potassium ratio by consuming more potassium than calcium.

Potassium-rich recipes

Getting plenty of potassium doesn't always have to be complicated. There are many easy and quick ways to prepare high-potassium recipes. Here are some suggestions:

  • Bean Soup: This tasty bean soup is high in potassium. For this you need 250 g of beans, 1 small onion, 1 tablespoon of olive oil, 1 teaspoon of oregano, 1 liter of vegetable stock and salt and pepper to taste. Put all the ingredients in the blender and mix to a creamy soup.
  • Broccoli and Carrot Salad: This is an easy and delicious recipe that's high in potassium. You will need 1 broccoli, ½ carrot, 1 tablespoon olive oil, 2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar, ½ teaspoon salt and some pepper. Cut the broccoli into small florets and slice the carrot. Mix the olive oil, apple cider vinegar, salt and pepper in a bowl and pour over the broccoli and carrot mix.
  • Chickpea Stew: This is a delicious and nutritious stew. For this you need 250 g chickpeas, 2 small onions, 1 tablespoon olive oil, ½ teaspoon cumin, 1 teaspoon paprika powder, 2 teaspoons turmeric , 1 liter vegetable stock and salt and pepper to taste. Finely dice the onions and sauté in a pan with olive oil. Add the chickpeas, cumin, paprika, turmeric , and vegetable stock and simmer. Finally season with salt and pepper.

IV. Potassium and Health

Potassium is one of the most important minerals in our food. It is needed for many important bodily functions, including muscle contractions and nerve impulses. Potassium is also involved in regulating water balance in the body and regulating blood pressure.

Insufficient potassium intake has been linked to various health problems, including

  • high blood pressure (hypertension)
  • constipation
  • kidney diseases
  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • muscle weakness
  • irritability
  • memory loss

Some of these conditions can be treated by increasing the levels of potassium in the body.

According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), adequate potassium intake can also help maintain normal blood pressure.

potassium and blood pressure

Potassium plays an important role in regulating blood pressure. It is one of the most important minerals that the body needs to keep blood pressure within the normal range. It has been scientifically proven that people with a high potassium intake have an antihypertensive effect.

Potassium helps regulate blood pressure by increasing water excretion, resulting in less fluid retention in the body and lowering blood pressure. Potassium can also decrease the elimination of sodium, which also lowers blood pressure.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has given official health benefits to potassium and blood pressure: "Increased potassium intake may improve the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate.

In addition, increased potassium intake can reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure. A high-potassium diet is generally considered beneficial for improving blood pressure regulation and preventing hypertension.

The WHO estimates the daily potassium requirement at 4.7 g. People with an increased risk of high blood pressure can particularly benefit from a higher potassium intake. It should be noted, however, that potassium or sodium alone is not recommended for blood pressure regulation. Instead, foods rich in potassium such as bananas, beans, carrots, tomatoes, lentils and nuts should be preferred.

potassium and heart health

Potassium is a mineral that is important for the cardiovascular system. It helps regulate blood pressure and keep blood vessels healthy. It can also help reduce the risk of heart disease. Potassium can reduce the development of high blood pressure and arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Studies have shown that adequate potassium intake can reduce the risk of heart disease. Increased potassium intake combined with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Adequate potassium intake can also help lower blood pressure.

Potassium plays an important role in the functioning of the heart and nervous system. Foods high in potassium can help the heart contract better and blood flow around the body more efficiently. Adequate potassium intake can also help regulate heart rate and lower blood pressure.

According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), potassium is important for healthy heart function. "Increased potassium intake helps maintain normal blood pressure and can help reduce the risk of heart disease," says the EFSA guideline.

potassium and kidney function

Potassium is important for regulating blood pressure and kidney function. It is directly involved in controlling body water and can regulate blood pressure by regulating the sodium-potassium balance in the body:

  1. Regulating the sodium-potassium balance in the body
  2. Regulation of fluid excretion by the kidneys

A potassium deficiency can lead to increased renal dysfunction due to reduced sodium excretion. This allows sodium to build up in the body and lead to high blood pressure.

A positive effect of potassium on blood pressure has been proven and is described by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as follows: "Potassium contributes to normal muscle and nervous system function, including normal blood pressure.

Potassium is also very important for body water control and kidney function. Again, the EFSA made the following statement: "Potassium helps maintain normal blood pressure by contributing to the normal function of the kidneys.

A lack of potassium can have a negative effect on the body and cause a variety of symptoms, such as: B. tiredness, muscle weakness, headaches and a disturbed function of the nervous system. Therefore, getting enough potassium in your diet is important to maintain healthy blood pressure and normal kidney function.

potassium and muscle function

Potassium is an essential mineral needed for muscle function. It is involved in muscle contraction and plays an important role in the coordination of movements. Potassium is also needed to replace muscle fibers that become worn out from heavy use.

Potassium is involved in controlling the flow of nutrients into cells and in regulating electrolyte balance. It helps maintain muscle contraction and muscle flexibility.

Potassium also helps maintain muscle oxygenation. This helps muscles develop strength and endurance. Potassium ensures that the muscles are adequately supplied with oxygen and that the cells receive the nutrients they need to function.

Potassium-rich foods and drinks are a valuable addition to a healthy diet. Muscle function can be supported by eating these foods.

It has been found that supplemental potassium intake of at least 3.5 grams per day can improve muscle function. This can have a positive effect on muscle strength and power.

Some of the best sources of potassium are

  • bananas
  • Vegetables, especially broccoli, peas, carrots and potatoes
  • Dried fruits such as dates, apricots and plums
  • nuts and seeds
  • fish, meat and eggs
  • whole grain products
  • Dairy products

V. Potassium supplements

Potassium supplements are a popular way to get extra potassium into the body. They are usually capsules , tablets , or powders that contain potassium chloride, potassium citrate, potassium sulfate, and potassium glycerophosphate. Depending on the type of preparation, several of these ingredients can also be combined.

Potassium supplements can be taken in the event of increased losses through the kidneys or certain diseases. They are also often used as dietary supplements to cover potassium requirements. Suspected health benefits include dietary support for the nervous system(1).

(1) Source: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

Types of Potassium Supplements

Potassium supplements are usually available in different dosage forms such as capsules, tablets, effervescent tablets and powder . Some preparations contain only potassium, others a combination of different electrolytes important for the body. A distinction must also be made between preparations containing potassium chloride and potassium citrate.

Potassium chloride is the most common form of administration and is often recommended to treat hypokalemia or prevent potassium deficiency. Potassium citrate is commonly used to prevent hyperuricemia or to relieve muscle spasms and movement disorders.

Here is an overview of the different types of potassium supplements:

  1. Potassium Chloride : Potassium chloride is a common potassium supplement, often used to treat hypokalemia or to prevent potassium deficiency.
  2. Potassium Citrate : Potassium citrate is a naturally occurring potassium supplement that is commonly used to relieve muscle spasms and movement disorders or to prevent hyperuricemia.
  3. Potassium Bicarbonate : Potassium bicarbonate is a formulated form of the electrolyte potassium that is commonly used to relieve muscle spasms and movement disorders or to prevent hyperuricemia.
  4. Potassium Aspartate : Potassium aspartate is a synthetic potassium supplement that is commonly used to relieve muscle spasms and movement disorders or to prevent hyperuricemia.
  5. Potassium glutamate : Potassium glutamate is a naturally occurring potassium supplement that is commonly used to relieve muscle spasms and movement disorders or to prevent hyperuricemia.

Risks and side effects of potassium supplements

Taking potassium supplements can have side effects. It's important that people taking potassium supplements always educate themselves about possible side effects to ensure their safety. Some common side effects of potassium supplements are

  • stomach upset
  • nausea
  • constipation
  • Vomit

Rare side effects are

  • chest pain
  • shortness of breath
  • Worsening of cardiac arrhythmia

If the above side effects occur, a doctor should be consulted. It's also important that people taking potassium supplements follow the doctor's instructions.

For people with certain diseases such as kidney stones, kidney disease, heart disease, diabetes or thyroid disease, we recommend that you consult your doctor beforehand.

People taking glucocorticoids or diuretics should take extra care, since taking potassium supplements can increase the effects of these drugs.

It is advised that safe and appropriate intake of potassium supplements should always be done in consultation with a healthcare practitioner.

VI Summary

Potassium is an essential mineral that helps the body achieve a healthy balance and maintain water balance. Potassium also has a number of health benefits:

  • It can help normalize blood pressure.
  • It can support the kidneys and heart.
  • It can relieve cramps.
  • It can relieve muscle spasms and improve muscle metabolism.

The daily potassium requirement is around 4,700 mg. Rich sources of potassium are

  • Vegetables like spinach, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage, potatoes, eggplant, and sweet potatoes.
  • Fruits like bananas, apples, oranges, grapefruits, peaches and strawberries.
  • Nuts and seeds such as almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, sesame and sunflower seeds.
  • Legumes such as lentils, chickpeas and peas.
  • Dried fruits such as dates, plums, apricots, figs and plums.

Potassium is an essential nutrient with many health benefits. Eating a balanced diet with the foods mentioned above can help meet your daily potassium needs.

the essentials in brief

Potassium is an essential mineral for the human body. It is an important part of many biochemical processes important to health and well-being. Found in many foods, it plays an important role in maintaining normal blood pressure.

Now we come to the most important points:

  1. Potassium is an essential mineral that is essential for the body.
  2. Potassium is found in many foods
  3. Potassium helps maintain normal blood pressure for the body to function properly.
  4. Other health benefits associated with getting adequate dietary potassium include a healthier heart and brain.
  5. Adequate potassium intake is important for everyone, but especially for the elderly, children, pregnant women and people with diabetes, high blood pressure or kidney disease.

Recommendations for a balanced diet

Potassium is found in many foods. Eating a balanced diet that includes lots of these foods is the best way to ensure adequate potassium intake.

The following food groups are particularly important for a balanced diet, as they are an important source of potassium:


Potatoes, broccoli, eggplant, kale, cauliflower, spinach and tomatoes.


Bananas, berries and dried fruits.


Lentils, peas, beans and other legumes.

nuts and seeds

Almonds, hazelnuts, sesame, sunflower seeds.

Dairy products

Yoghurt, cheese and other dairy products.


Mackerel, salmon, tuna and other types of fish.

Sufficient salt intake is also important because potassium and sodium work together in the body to regulate blood pressure. Adequate potassium intake can help lower blood pressure. “Potassium may help lower blood pressure” (EFSA, 2013).

Potassium is also an important nutrient for healthy bones. Scientific studies have shown that adequate potassium intake is important to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

Potassium FAQ

1. What is potassium and what is it used for?

Potassium is a chemical element from the group of alkali metals and is used in many areas, for example in the manufacture of fertilizers, batteries and medicines.

2. How does a potassium deficiency affect the body?

A potassium deficiency can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmia.

3. Which foods contain a lot of potassium?

Foods like bananas, avocados, spinach, and potatoes are high in potassium.

4. How Much Potassium Should You Consume Daily?

The recommended daily intake of potassium for adults is about 2,000-3,000 mg.

5. Can Potassium Overdose Be Dangerous?

Yes, an overdose of potassium can lead to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and cardiac arrhythmias, and in the worst cases it can be life-threatening.

6. How to measure potassium levels in the body?

The level of potassium in the body can be determined by a blood test.

7. Can potassium help treat high blood pressure?

Yes, potassium can help lower blood pressure and is often recommended as part of a healthy diet to treat high blood pressure.

8. Are there any risks from taking potassium supplements?

Yes, taking potassium supplements can lead to side effects such as gastrointestinal problems and cardiac arrhythmia. It's important to discuss taking potassium supplements with a doctor.

9. How can the potassium content in food be determined?

The potassium content of food can be determined by laboratory analysis.

10. Can a high-potassium diet be harmful for kidney problems?

Yes, if you have kidney problems, a high potassium diet can be harmful as the kidneys may not be able to remove excess potassium from the body. It is important to discuss diet with a doctor if you have kidney problems.

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